Client Factors


Cognitive content held as true.


1. He or she is powerless to influence others.
2. Hard work pays off.


1. Profits are more important than people.
2. Achieving the mission of providing service can effect positive change in the world.


1. People can influence government by voting.
2. Accessibility is a right, not a privilege.

Body Functions

The physiological functions of body systems (including psychological functions). The "Body Functions" section of the table below is organized according to the classifications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) classifications.

Mental functions (affective, cognitive, perceptual)

Specific mental functions


Higher-level cognitive

Judgement, concept formation, metacognition, cognitive flexibility, insight, attention, awareness


Sustained, selective, and divided attention


Short-term, long-term, and working memory


Discrimination of sensations (e.g., auditory, tactile, visual, olfactory, gustatory, vestibular-proprioception), including multi-sensory processing, sensory memory, spatial, and temporal relationships


Recognition, categorization, generalization, awareness of reality, logical/coherent thought, and appropriate thought content

Mental functions of sequencing complex movement

Execution of learned movement patterns


Coping and behavioral regulation

Experience of self and time

Body image, self-concept, self-esteem

Global mental functions



Level of arousal, level of consciousness


Orientation to person, place, time, self, and others

Temperament and personality

Emotional stability

Energy and drive

Motivation, impulse control, and appetite

Sleep(physiological process)

Sensory functions and pain


Seeing and related functions, including visual acuity, visual stability, visual field functions Detection/registration, modulation, and integration of sensations from the body and environment Visual awareness of environment at various distances.

Hearing functions

Tolerance of ambient sounds;
awareness of location and distance of sounds such as an approaching car

Vestibular functions

Sensation of securely moving against gravity

Taste functions

Association of taste

Smell functions

Association of smell

Proprioceptive functions

Awareness of body position and space

Touch functions

Comfort with the feeling of being touched by others or touching various textures such as food

Pain (e.g., diffuse, dull, sharp, phantom)

Localizing pain

Temperature and pressure

Thermal awareness

Neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions


Functions of joints and bones

Joint mobility

Joint range of motion

Joint stability

Postural alignment (this refers to the physiological stability of the joint related to its structural integrity as compared to the motor skill of aligning the body while moving in relation to task objects)

Muscle power


Muscle tone

Degree of muscle tone (e.g., flaccidity, spasticity, fluctuating)

Muscle endurance


Motor reflexes

Stretch, asymmetrical tonic neck, symmetrical tonic neck

Involuntary movement reactions

Righting and supporting

Control of voluntary movement

Eye-hand/foot coordination, bilateral integration, crossing the midline, fine- and gross-motor control, and oculomotor (e.g., saccades, pursuits, accommodation, binocularity)

Gait patterns

Walking patterns and impairments such as asymmetric gait, stiff gait. (Gait patterns are considered in relation to how they affect ability to engage in occupations in daily life activities.)

Cardiovascular, hematological, immunological, and respiratory system function


Cardiovascular system function

Blood pressure functions (hypertension, hypotension, postural hypotension), and heart rate

Hematological and immunological system function

Respiratory system function

Additional functions and sensations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Rate, rhythm, and depth of respiration
Physical endurance, aerobic capacity, stamina, and fatigability

Voice and speech functions

Voice functions
Fluency and rhythm
Alternative vocalization functions

Digestive, metabolic, and endocrine system function

Digestive system function
Metabolic system and endocrine system function

Genitourinary and reproductive functions

Urinary functions
Genital and reproductive functions

Skin and related-structure functions

Skin functions
Protective functions of the skin-presence or absence of wounds, cuts, or abrasions.
Hair and nail functions
Repair function of the skin-wound healing.

Body Structures

Occupational therapy practitioners have knowledge of body structures and understand broadly the interaction that occurs between these structures to support health and participation in life through engagement in occupation. Some therapists may specialize in evaluating and intervening with a specific structure as it is related to supporting performance and engagement in occupations and activities targeted for intervention.

Structure of the nervous system

Eyes, ear, and related structures

Structures involved in voice and speech

Structures of the cardiovascular, immunological and respiratory systems

Structures related to the digestive, metabolic and endocrine systems

Structure related to the genitourinary and reproductive systems

Structures related to movement

Skin and related structures


The personal quest for understanding answers to ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and the sacred.


1. Daily search for purpose and meaning in one's life.
2. Guiding actions from a sense of value beyond the personal acquisition of wealth or fame.

Organization and Population

See Person examples related to individuals within an organization and population.

Values -

Principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desireable by the client who holds them.

Person -

1. Honesty with self and with others
2. Personal religious convictions
3. Commitment to family

Organization -

1. Obligation to serve the community
2. Fairness

Population -

1. Freedom of speech
2. Equal opportunities for all
3. Tolerance towards others